Terminology in Hetalia: Axis Powers

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This is a list of terms used in the series Hetalia: Axis Powers and their definitions and significance in relation to history and other aspects of the world.

Body Height

The nations' body height usually depends on the size of their country territory, wealth, and power. But a newborn country is always shown as a little kid, no matter how much power and wealth they have. Independence may also play a role in aging for younger nations, while others seem to not age much at all (ie: Latvia and Liechtenstein).

Examples of body height growth in the series include:

  • The young America grew taller than England in a short amount of time due to his fast development as a nation.
  • Sealand never ages due to his small territory, and the fact that he's not considered an actual nation.
  • In England's nightmare, Sealand suddenly grew taller than England due to a change in the earth crust that caused a landmass to rise up beneath the platform, thus making him a true nation. Shown in the strip This Kind Of Sealand is OO.
  • In the original webcomic prologue strip to Chibitalia, it was said that the younger Italy (Veneziano) did not age along with France and Spain due to the fact that he spent his time painting rather than conquering. It appears that being conquered himself also slowed his aging process down (until he managed to hit puberty one day).
  • A footnote in the same story implies that South Italy (Romano)'s growth possibly remains slow due to having been under Spain's rule. However, in the earlier-drawn Hetalia strips, Romano was shown to be somewhat taller than Veneziano (as both an adult and child).
  • Greece appeared to be a small child while under Ottoman rule, but is shown to have grown up after becoming independent. But in a volume 3 strip, it is suggested that he at least aged to his teens at some point while with Turkey.

Body Pain

The nations tend to feel this when a power struggle happens in their government or land, as well as when disaster may strike.


The political leader or head of state for a nation. Though the nation has power themselves, they defer to their boss and don't (or can't) interfere with the plans their boss may make.

Examples of "bosses" in the series include:

  • An unspecified President as America's boss
  • Adolf Hitler (shown from behind in Pact Of Steel) as Germany's boss in the World War-centric strips
  • Joanna the Mad as Spain's, shown in the strips wherein Spain cares for Romano.
  • Henry VIII as England's, shown in Episode 39 of the Anime.

Though the bosses are mostly portrayed as being historical political leaders, China is an exception, with his boss instead depicted as a giant dragon.

Catching A Cold

When a nation's economy goes through a recession or any other sort of crisis, it causes them to catch a cold. England was the first character shown to experience this, while America had no clue what a "cold" even was.

Later strips would reveal that when America does happen to catch a cold, it quickly becomes contagious and spreads to other nations.


If nations happen to share a history together or culture, they are sometimes portrayed as being related in some fashion. Non-"blood" relative examples include:

  • England adopting the younger America and raising him as a younger brother. Eventually, America becomes estranged from England after declaring himself independent (and having fought the Revolutionary War for it).
  • Switzerland adopting the Liechtenstein and becoming an older brother to her. However, since both of them are Germanic nations, which are all stated to be childrens/grandchildrens of Germania, they are possibly blood-related.
  • Sweden appearing to buy Sealand off eBay and adopting him as a son. However, this scenario appears to have been a dream of England's, though Sealand is shown around Sweden in a few strips taking place after this one. But it appears that the two are no longer connected, as Sealand's current profile states that he only hopes that Sweden will adopt him, indicating a possible revision to the storyline (as well as the aforementioned strip with Sealand's "adoption" not being reprinted and volume 3's Sealand strips overwriting the rest of 'It's Sealand-kun!').
  • The Baltic States of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. But even with being close, they don't formally recognize each other as "brothers", and their differing cultures also contribute to it. When Latvia expresses interest in having siblings, the other two ignore him.
  • China raising Japan as a younger brother, though Japan denied having such a connection to him when asked. It is often theorized that China may have raised the other Asian nations like South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong as siblings as well, though these relations have yet to be confirmed.

Meanwhile, "blood" relative examples include:

  • America and Canada as brothers. It is often assumed that they are identical twins, though the strips do not specify if they are twins or which of them is older or younger. Fanon often casts Canada as the younger brother, due to America's older confederation date, though other fans think of Canada as the older one, due to his calmer personality.
  • England and his brothers (Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland). Sealand may also be counted, as he was created by England. It is unknown what role Ireland may have in relation to him, but can be assumed he is one of his siblings as well.
  • Ancient Rome and his grandsons: Italy (Veneziano) and South Italy (Romano). Moldova and Romania are also possibly his grandsons, as Romania claims that he is Rome's grandson as well, due to his land's past and culture.
  • Germania and his several descendants: Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Germany, Saxony, Bavaria, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and the other Germanic nations. Prussia and Germany are specifically said to be brothers, along with the other German states (such as Bavaria). However, it is sometimes debated in fanon if Prussia is an actual descendant to Germania, due to the land's Baltic past. Also, due to the fact that Germania is said as the father/grandfather of the Germanic nations, it can be assumed that Liechtenstein, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg, etc. are also his descendants, the latter three being specifically said to be siblings.
  • Portugal and Spain, as they share the same ancestor, are relatives in some way, though how exactly is unknown, possibly they are brothers due to the fact they are often mistaken with each other due to their very similar appearance.
  • Magyar and his descendant Hungary.

Special "Friends"

Nations that have historically formed an "alliance" of some sort tend to be portrayed as close "friends" in the series.

Examples include:

  • Greece and Japan
  • America and England
  • Both England and America's alliances with Japan
  • Germany and North Italy (and later Japan, after the Tripartite Pact was signed)


The nations in the series are said to speak different languages at various times, including their own. But it is implied that they all share one specific universal language that they can understand (it could be Esperanto, a language created for a second-language of universal peace and international understanding among nations). It is directly said that it would be hard for newborn nations or isolated ones to understand languages easily, including this one.

Some Nations show preferences to languages other than their own when communicating. Iceland, for example, is somewhat embarrassed by his thick accent and hard-to-understand language and speaks in English whenever possible.


Used to signify two nations unifying and becoming one, as in the case of Austria and Hungary, who married with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise. However, their union proved to be short-lived. It is also stated that Austria had many other marriages, one of these other unions is briefly alluded to in canon when he chastises Spain for wanting to bring bigamy into their household (as they were united under the Habsburgs).

Lithuania and Poland, married with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569-1795.

In Dream United Kingdom, the war-torn France proposed marriage to England, but was shot down.

Belarus desires to marry her brother.

But there are cases of unions in the series not specifically depicted or referred to as marriage, one such instance being the unification of the Italy brothers as the Kingdom Of Italy.


A nation having been annexed or put under the control of another in some fashion.

Instances in the series include:

  • Austria having to live with Germany (due to Germany's "boss" ordering it)
  • Russia's control over the Baltics and his two sisters, as part of the Soviet Union. He also had control over Finland and Poland for a period of time.
  • Sweden and Finland having to live under Denmark's rule, before they eventually ran away. Finland was thus an underling to Sweden for a period of time, though the strips lack to mention that it had technically already been a part of Sweden.
  • Chibitalia (child version of North Italy) coming under the control of Holy Roman Empire (along with Austria, Hungary, and some other nations).
  • Prussia moving into Germany's house after he lost his official position as a nation and became the East side of Germany.


Intense political situations may cause nations to become ill, as well as disasters in their homeland. One instance of the latter was Russia cursing Japan, which eventually resulted in him coming down with an illness at the same time as the "Great Kanto Earthquake".

In The Long-Awaited Deep Emotion Is Ruined, England became deathly-ill after his experimental Panjandrum project failed and exploded.

Himaruya has also stated that bad weather may also cause nations to feel ill, such as if it rained too much. It was also said that such an occurrence would vary among different nations, along with their body temperature.

Vital Regions

A term often used as a double entendre in reference to nations' capitals and states, as well as their actual genitalia.

It was first used in-series when Prussia threatened to invade Austria and later did so, taking Silesia for himself and angering Hungary in the process. When Austria announced that Prussia had seized his vital regions, Maria Theresa responded that there were better ways of saying it.

It was later used in reference to genitalia when Spain had a nightmare of the grown-up Romano "crushing" his after jumping down on him. Lithuania also used the term in another strip, when he played chess with Poland.